The fire hydrant as the name suggests is in the case of fires disaster in part for water to fire a device. Fire hydrant types can be generally classified according to the following conditions, according to the fire hydrant layout in general: Indoor fire hydrant and outdoor fire hydrant. According to the outdoor fire hydrant installation form can be divided into ground-type and underground. According to the number of fire hydrant outlet, the two-port type, and three water outlet type. Outdoor fire hydrant is usually installed on the municipal water pipe network, according to the municipal water pipe network hydrant design specifications, fire hydrant spacing should not exceed 120 meters, so it is no less than the number of water supply pipe network valve, is one of the important facilities for water supply network.
The special role of the hydrant determines its governance in the municipal water pipe network particularity, it is different from the municipal water supply network of other facilities, its use, maintenance, management by the water enterprises. And the fire hydrant exception, its use is mainly satisfied with the use of firefighting management, and maintenance, governance by the water supply enterprises themselves. There are also individual city hydrant maintenance management by the fire department to bear. Fire hydrant like a soldier, is "Ching, Newbing" firefighting water control equipment. Once the fire has to meet the requirements of firefighting part of the water to fire, and as a daily maintenance and management of hydrants, the responsibility for the management of hydrants is heavy.
Fire hydrant as a municipal water supply network of important facilities of its connection with the pipe net form is: the level of the exclusive branch pipe, set up control valves to connect the fire hydrant, the fire hydrant well room is located near the main water mains. There is also a fire hydrant set up in the branch pipe not dedicated to the fire hydrant, often also with the main control valve installed in a well indoor, commonly known as fire hydrant casing well. That is, the valve connected with the hydrant in addition to the fire hydrant need to check the effect of valve water shutoff, at the same time also plays a downstream pipe flow control, for installation, maintenance and other functions. There are directly in the water pipeline plus three-way, fire hydrant erected on the back of the installation of the form. With the city building, population density increase, and fire fighting equipment (mainly refers to fire engines) specifications of the changes in performance, underground hydrants are selected for the φ100mmsx-100 type, and the past SX-65 type and so gradually withdrew from the urban water supply network.
A lot of water supply enterprises in the water supply network facilities management only pay attention to the implementation of the valve, thinking that the tube valve is good for the water supply pipe network, and often in the fire hydrant treatment has been overlooked. As a result of the fire hydrant's governance once the fault, its consequences and the social impact of greater. This should cause the fire hydrant maintenance management responsibility of the water supply enterprises highly vigilant.
To ensure the use and maintenance of fire hydrant, we have to start from the selection of fire hydrant, fire hydrant design and installation, the daily maintenance of the fire hydrant to talk about.
Outdoor Fire hydrant Selection
1. Selection of underground fire hydrant and ground-type hydrant should be adapted to local conditions. In the municipal water supply network, some urban water supply network of fire hydrant planning set exaggerated use of underground, and some cities from the original underground and all converted to ground-style. Underground fire hydrant has a strong concealment, does not affect the city beautiful, less damage, cold zone can be antifreeze and other advantages. But as part of the use and governance, looking for maintenance is not very convenient, easy to be built vehicles and so buried, accounted for, pressure, a large number of underground fire hydrants need well room protection, funds into large, at the same time in the Urban underground pipeline network planning occupies a lot of position, to the planning brought difficulties. On the contrary, the ground-type fire hydrant, more eye-catching, easy to find, use, maintenance more convenient, but easily damaged, easy to cause theft of water. If the real according to the standard 120 meters set a fire hydrant, will inevitably have a certain impact on the city street. Fire hydrant is mainly used for water use, so as a part of the hydrant, how to quickly find a fire hydrant, fetching water fast, convenient, easy to see and request the part of the firefighting. Not only to meet the use, but also to consider city scenery, while maintaining the maintenance of governance, so the choice of fire hydrant should be adapted to local conditions, the combination of underground-type ground. and fire hydrant specifications model not too much, easy to use maintenance.
2. Fire hydrant outlet caliber shall not be less than φ100mm. With the increase of urban building and population density, the difficulty of fire fighting increased, in order to ensure the water pressure of fire extinguishing requirements, must ensure that at least one outlet caliber φ100 mm.
3. The opening and closing direction of fire hydrant should be the same, should be clockwise off counterclockwise. The screw should be used stainless steel, sealed the bowl of the choice of EPDM rubber or butyl rubber, the cavity in vivo anti-corrosion should meet the health indicators of drinking water, should be consistent with valve requirements.
Second, outdoor fire hydrant installation design
1. Fire hydrant installation design, should be designed to be installed in the streets of the intersection area, in ensuring that eye-catching and does not affect the position of pedestrians, driving, while considering maintenance and daily drainage convenient. such as sidewalks along the street, the rainwater drains the mouth beside the sidewalk tree side. Some ground-type fire hydrants due to the original installation and subsequent changes in road surface elevation, the fire hydrant will be buried in the soil, plugging and unable to discharge, resulting in water quality changes in the hydrant chamber, such as wire rod rust, affecting the water quality of the pipe network and the service life of the hydrant.
2. Installation design of underground hydrant. The underground fire hydrant is designed and installed in an underground well, therefore, the fire hydrant outlet height and outlet plane position is the key to water intake, from the part of the water intake to take into account, the outlet from the ground height should be controlled around 30cm, consider maintenance, use convenient outlet plane position should be close to the wellhead side. If the hydrant well is deep and the hydrant is too long, the riser should be fixed in the well to ensure safety in use.
3. For high-rise buildings around the design of outdoor fire hydrant, should consider the fire hydrant and super high-rise building water pump connector spacing, so that once the super high-rise building fires, the part can be in the shortest interval of water and pump to take.
4. Due to the impact of planning and other factors, often the control valve well and the function of the fire well, used to call the well, it seems to save the planning position, and achieved a double function, but also brought about the ills of governance. First, once the fire hydrant need to repair the need to close the valve and affect the normal downstream water supply. Similarly, the maintenance of downstream pipelines when the shutoff valve affects the normal use of fire hydrant, the normal use of the fire hydrant will be reduced. This is very unfavorable to the "Newbing" fire hydrant use management. Second, because the well has dual function, and the manhole cover to the fire cover or valve well cover, bringing the confusion in the use of treatment, so the design should be as far as possible to avoid such a set of wells.
Iii. Control of Fire hydrant
1. As one of the auxiliary facilities of the pipe network, the fire hydrant should be treated as the other facilities, and a special management team should be established to implement the special management. Once found that the fire hydrant failure should be treated as the same as the pipe network to seize the explosion in a timely manner. In addition to the fire hydrant should also be developed cycle inspection Maintenance plan, the implementation of regular maintenance measures. Ground-type hydrants should also be regularly carried out paint anti-corrosion to ensure eye-catching. Regularly to the fire hydrant drainage control inspection, on the one hand to determine whether the fire hydrant is effective, water pressure to meet the normal category. On the other hand in the water distribution network is also through the fire hydrant drainage to improve the water quality to ensure the pipe network. In the implementation of fire hydrant drainage work, in order to ensure the quality of drainage and prevent two of pipe network pollution, drainage should take the hose to the water into the rain well. The drainage quality is measured by the on-site water sample, the main measurement of turbidity, residual chlorine and other quality indicators, in addition to the drainage pipe network to carry out the test records, the accumulation of pipe network service pressure parameters, to facilitate the operation of pipe network scheduling parameters.
Through the fire hydrant drainage to improve the water quality of the pipe network to ensure safe operation of the fire hydrant is necessary, but at the same time to the water supply enterprises to bring the problem is the water supply enterprises and the corresponding increase in production and marketing, how to economically reasonable and scientific drainage management is a water supply enterprises should be worthy of Chengdu Water Department in the fire hydrant management work, according to the fire hydrant setting, the discharge conditions at the site and the pipeline material condition of the fire hydrant and the water supply of the area are divided into different levels of drainage management, and the specific conditions are divided into periodic periods and key emissions, and according to the bese time, the water pressure at that time, etc. In order to facilitate the correct displacement lecturer, there are individual water supply enterprises in each of the fire hydrant installed meter metering, foreign countries have similar practices. But after the addition of water meters also increased the difficulty of governance, this practice should be carefully considered.
2. Fire hydrant well with other facilities, as well, often may be heap, block, buried, pressure, in addition to strengthen patrol, but also should be good for the publicity and guidance of the regulations. In particular, it should work closely with the local fire department, and rely on the fire department's enforcement efforts to maintain and control the fire facilities. Fire fighting in the fire department in the implementation of the piece area management, so the water supply enterprise fire hydrant maintenance and control should also be combined with the part of the control of the piece area to form a common governance, conducive to a multiplier. Chengdu Water Department in the fire cover spray rinse yellow paint to warn, convenient to find maintenance, and play eye-catching, to facilitate the use of fire, the method value line promotion. Of course, the conditions of the fire cover should also be brushing into fluorescent, reflective marking for the night to find.
3. Fire hydrant as one of the water supply network facilities, the establishment and sound of its file data is the key to the management of fire hydrant, its file data should include Tankatu, maintenance records, daily inspection records. It is also necessary to establish a fire hydrant management information computer system to improve the control of fire hydrant means.
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Wushan Village, Xiaoyue Town, Shangyu Shaoxing City, Zhejiang Province, China